Bibliography and Note Forms

The excerpts below are from Turabian, Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition), which is available on line from our library’s database (look under C for Chicago).  Here is the gist, quoted from Turabian and helpful if you delve further into this database:

14 Note and Bibilography Formats

14.1 The purpose of source citations

Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations or paraphrases and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked (see 13.1–6). Conventions for documentation vary according to scholarly discipline, the preferences of publishers and authors, and the needs of a particular work. Regardless of the convention being followed, the primary criterion of any source citation is sufficient information either to lead readers directly to the sources consulted or, for materials that may not be readily available, to positively identify the sources used, whether these are published or unpublished, in printed or electronic form.

14.2 Chicago’s two systems of source citation

This chapter describes the first of Chicago’s two systems of documentation, which uses a system of notes, whether footnotes or endnotes or both, and usually a bibliography. The notes allow space for unusual types of sources as well as for commentary on the sources cited, making this system extremely flexible. Because of this flexibility, the notes and bibliography system is preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts. Chicago’s other system—which uses parenthetical author-date references and a corresponding reference list as described in chapter 15—is nearly identical in content but differs in form. The author-date system is preferred for many publications in the sciences and social sciences but may be adapted for any work, sometimes with the addition of footnotes or endnotes. For journals, the choice between systems is likely to have been made long ago; anyone writing for a journal should consult the specific journal’s instructions to authors (and see 14.3).

14.4 Electronic resource identifiers

When citing electronic sources consulted online, Chicago recommends—as the final element in a citation that includes all the components described throughout this chapter and in chapter 15—the addition of a URL1 or DOI.2 Either of these elements has the potential to lead readers directly to the source cited, and authors are encouraged to record them as part of their source citations. Publishers, however, will have their own requirements, which may depend on the type of work and the uses to which it will be put. For example, publishers of electronic journals may provide hyperlinks to cited electronic sources as a matter of course—a process that authors facilitate when they provide resource identifiers with their source citations. Publishers of printed books, on the other hand, may require a URL or DOI only in citations of sources that may otherwise be difficult to locate. Authors are therefore advised to consult their publishers early in the publication process. The information in this section—together with the examples of URLs and DOIs throughout this chapter—is intended to provide guidance for those authors and publishers who wish to include them as part of their research or publications or both. For citing electronic sources on fixed media such as CD-ROMs, see 14.16614.16814.27614.279.

14.15 Basic structure of a note

A footnote or an endnote generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication, in that order. Elements are separated by commas; the facts of publication are enclosed in parentheses. Authors’ names are presented in standard order (first name first). Titles are capitalized headline-style (see 8.157), unless they are in a foreign language (see 11.3). Titles of larger works (e.g., books and journals) are italicized; titles of smaller works (e.g., chapters, articles) or unpublished works are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see8.161). Such terms as editor/edited by, translator/translated by, volume, and edition are abbreviated.

14.16 Basic structure of a bibliography entry

In a bibliography entry the elements are separated by periods rather than by commas; the facts of publication are not enclosed in parentheses; and the first-listed author’s name, according to which the entry is alphabetized in the bibliography, is usually inverted (last name first). As in a note, titles are capitalized headline-style unless they are in a foreign language; titles of larger works (e.g., books and journals) are italicized; and titles of smaller works (e.g., chapters, articles) or unpublished works are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks. Noun forms such as editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by andtranslated by—abbreviated in a note—are spelled out in a bibliography. (Cf. 14.15.)

The following abbreviations are used here to indicate the various formats used in writing history: N = note; B = bibliography.  Where two or more bibliography or reference-list entries appear together as examples, they are listed alphabetically as if in an actual bibliography, so their order may vary from that of the notes.

N:

1. Paul Davies, The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin of Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999), 23.

2. Kathleen Burnett and Eliza T. Dresang, “Rhizomorphic Reading: The Emergence of a New Aesthetic in Literature for Youth,” Library Journal 69 (October 1999): 439.

3. Anne Carr, “Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis,” in Religion, Feminism, and the Family, ed. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996), 14.

B:

Burnett, Kathleen, and Eliza T. Dresang. “Rhizomorphic Reading: The Emergence of a New Aesthetic in Literature for Youth.” Library Journal 69 (October 1999): 421–45.

Davies, Paul. The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin of Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.

Carr, Anne. “Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis.” In Religion, Feminism, and the Family, ed. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 14-32. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

What follows is a handy series of examples:

1) Bibliography forms (for more information and examples see 14.18)

Normal citation for a book:

Sprat, Jack. I Just Love to Be Slim, Is Why. London: Diet Press, 1987.

Normal citation for an article in a book:

Ella, Cinder. “Foot Surgery after Use of Glass Shoes.” In Medical Tales from Sesame Island, ed. Big Bird, 111-23. Sesame City: Grimm Press, 1996.

Here 111-23 refers to the pages in the book covered by Ella’s chapter.

Normal citation for an article in a journal:

Bo-Peep, Mary.  “Mad Cow Behavior.” Journal of Rural History 32 (1909): 16-32.

Note that after the first line, lines of bibliography are indented.

Normal citation for text accessed digitally:

Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643–47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

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